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Krossfjord

Map Krossfjord

Krossfjord.

For more, detail­ed infor­ma­ti­on: the Gui­de­book Spits­ber­gen-Sval­bard

Guidebook Spitsbergen-Svalbard

Pho­to gal­le­ries Krossfjord

Scroll down to the end of this page or use the links below to see pho­tos, sor­ted in several gal­le­ries, from five pla­ces of inte­rest in Krossfjord:

Gene­ral: Krossfjord

Fjord area with beau­ti­ful and varied land­s­cape and a long histo­ry. Krossfjord has several bran­ches and side-bays and the lar­gest gla­cier in this part of Spits­ber­gen. Lil­lie­höökfjord and Möl­lerfjord are the main bran­ches in the nort­hern part of Krossfjord. The north and east coast of Krossfjord are very moun­tai­ne­ous and hea­vi­ly gla­cia­ted. The name is deri­ved from a woo­den cross that was erec­ted by wha­lers in the ent­ran­ce of the fjord sys­tem cen­tu­ries ago. The cross has disap­peared.

The gulf stream keeps the cli­ma­te rela­tively mild (for regio­nal stan­dards at least) and the fjord open for most of the year. Krossfjord lies wit­hin the Nor­thwest Spits­ber­gen Natio­nal Park. The small islet near Kapp Guis­sez bet­ween Kongs- and Krossfjord is a Bird sanc­tua­ry, ent­ry or approach clo­ser than 300 metres are pro­hi­bi­ted during the bree­ding sea­son (15th May to 15th August). Ebeltof­tod­den on the south side of Ebeltoft­ham­na is clo­sed becau­se of cul­tu­ral heri­ta­ge remains.

Glacierfront of Lilliehöökbreen

Gla­cier­front of Lil­lie­höök­breen.

Krossfjord pan­ora­ma

The­re is a cou­p­le of sub-pages with pan­ora­ma images and addi­tio­nal infor­ma­ti­on on spitsbergen-svalbard.com so you can take a vir­tu­al tour to a num­ber of sites in the Krossfjord area:

Geo­lo­gy

Varied. Most­ly base­ment rocks, pre­di­mi­nant­ly Phyl­li­tes and mica schist, which were defor­med stron­gly both during the Cale­do­ni­an oro­ge­ny (Silu­ri­an) and the Alpi­dic oro­ge­ny (here lower Ter­tia­ry), when lar­ge she­ets were over­th­rus­ted.

Fjortende Julibukta

Thrust faults in Fjor­ten­de Juli­buk­ta.

Recom­men­ded book for fur­ther, well-digesta­ble (real­ly!) info about geo­lo­gy and land­s­cape of Sval­bard.

Land­s­cape

Mountains, Krossfjord

Moun­tain sce­ne­ry on the east side of Krossfjord.

The sce­ne­ry around Krossfjord is most­ly moun­tai­ne­ous. Lar­ger low­land are­as are limi­ted to Kapp Guis­sez, Kapp Mitra and the outer coast. The inland north and east of Krossfjord is stron­gly gla­cia­ted, and several gla­ciers reach the various bran­ches and side bays. Lil­lie­höök­breen is the lar­gest of the cal­ving gla­ciers in Krossfjord, alt­hough it has retrea­ted stron­gly sin­ce the ear­ly 20th cen­tu­ry, with an acce­le­ra­ting trend in recent years. Beau­ti­ful gla­ciers can also be found in Tinay­re­buk­ta and Fjor­ten­de Juli­buk­ta, to name just some examp­les.

Fjortende Julibukta

Fjor­ten­de Juli­buk­ta.

Flo­ra and Fau­na

The rela­tively mild cli­ma­te and the rea­di­ly wea­the­ring schist tog­e­ther pro­du­ce some rich vege­ta­ti­on. The tun­dra in Krossfjord is typi­cal­ly a colour­ful car­pet espe­cial­ly rich in mos­ses and lichens, such as in Signe­ham­na. The vege­ta­ti­on is espe­cial­ly rich in the vicini­ty of bird cliffs, such as the “han­ging gar­dens” near Redin­ger­pyn­ten in Fjor­ten­de Juli­buk­ty (be care­ful with the fra­gi­le vege­ta­ti­on on the slo­pes and keep a good distance from bree­ding birds, espe­cial­ly geese, which are easi­ly sca­red away).

Reindeer and Tundra, Signehamna

Rein­de­er on tun­dra with lichens and mos­ses in Signe­ham­na.

Vegetation, Fjortende Julibukta

»Han­ging gar­dens« in Fjor­ten­de Juli­buk­ta: the vege­ta­ti­on here inclu­des some less com­mon spe­ci­es such as Eri­ge­ron humi­lis.

The­re is a num­ber of bird cliffs with Brünich’s guil­lemots and kit­ti­wa­kes next to smal­ler num­bers of puf­fins and glau­cous gulls. Most bird cliffs are high abo­ve sea level, but the­re are some more acces­si­ble ones at Redin­ger­pyn­ten in Fjor­ten­de Juli­buk­ta and at Cadio­pyn­ten. Arc­tic foxes feast on ever­ything that might fall down from the­se cliffs and rein­de­er gra­ze on the tun­dra. Polar bears are not necessa­ri­ly an ever­y­day sight in Krossfjord, but they can show up any­whe­re and at any time, so you never know …

Brünich's guillemots, Fjortende Julibukta

Brünich’s guil­lemots, Fjor­ten­de Juli­buk­ta.

Histo­ry

Being of rela­tively easy access, the area has a long histo­ry. The 17th cen­tu­ry wha­lers knew the­se fjords, but no remains of wha­ling sta­ti­ons are known from this area. Some of the ear­liest win­te­rings of Nor­we­gi­an hun­ters in Spits­ber­gen have taken place in Krossfjord in the 19th cen­tu­ry. In 1906 and 1907 Krossfjord was inves­ti­ga­ted during ocea­no­gra­phi­cal expe­di­ti­ons by Duke Albert I. of Mona­co. The duke was hims­elf a keen ocea­no­gra­pher and he took part in both expe­di­ti­ons. Albert II. of Mona­co visi­ted Krossfjord a cen­tu­ry later, in 2006, to find the gla­ciers much smal­ler. Names like Fjor­ten­de Juli­buk­ta (14th July Bay, after the French natio­nal day) and other French names date back to the expe­di­ti­ons of Albert I.

The­re was a Ger­man obser­va­to­ry in Ebeltoft­ham­na in the years from 1910 to 1914. It was main­ly a wea­ther sta­ti­on set up to inves­ti­ga­te if the area would be sui­ta­ble for polar rese­arch by air­s­hip, initia­ted by count Fer­di­nand von Zep­pe­lin during his 1910 expe­di­ti­on which clai­med lar­ge land are­as in the Kongsfjord-Krossfjord area and fur­ther north up to Raudfjord.

During the second world war, the Ger­man Kriegs­ma­ri­ne (navy) had wea­ther sta­ti­ons in Signe­ham­na in 1941-42 (code name “Knos­pe”) and in 1942-43 (“Nuss­baum”).

German weather station, Signehamna, Krossfjord

Remains after the Ger­man wea­ther sta­ti­on from the second world war in Signe­ham­na.

Krossfjord pho­to gal­le­ry 1: Fjor­ten­de Juli­buk­ta

Fjor­ten­de Juli­buk­ta is one of the most popu­lar visi­tor sites in Krossfjord.

Click on thumb­nail to open an enlar­ged ver­si­on of the spe­ci­fic pho­to.

Krossfjord pho­to gal­le­ry 2: Lil­lie­höök­breen

Lil­lie­höök­breen is the lar­gest gla­cier in the area. It is stron­gly retrea­ting due to cli­ma­te chan­ge.

Click on thumb­nail to open an enlar­ged ver­si­on of the spe­ci­fic pho­to.

Krossfjord pho­to gal­le­ry 3: Möl­lerfjord, Lloyds Hotel

Möl­lerfjord is Krossfjord’s nor­the­as­tern branch. Pla­ces of inte­rest inclu­de Lloyd’s Hotel.

Click on thumb­nail to open an enlar­ged ver­si­on of the spe­ci­fic pho­to.

Krossfjord pho­to gal­le­ry 4: Signe­ham­na

Signe­ham­na is ano­t­her fre­quent­ly used lan­ding site. During the second world war, it was the sight of two Ger­man war wea­ther sta­ti­ons.

Click on thumb­nail to open an enlar­ged ver­si­on of the spe­ci­fic pho­to.

Krossfjord pho­to gal­le­ry 5: Ebeltoft­ham­na, Col­l­ins­od­den

During the years from 1910 to 1914, Ebeltoft­ham­na housed the Ger­man “geo­phy­si­cal obser­va­to­ry” initia­ted by count Zep­pe­lin. At Col­l­ins­od­den, some kilo­me­tres down the coast, the sci­en­tists used a trapper’s hut as a secon­da­ry obser­va­to­ry during one win­ter to obser­ve nort­hern lights simul­ta­ne­ous­ly from two dif­fe­rent pla­ces for alti­tu­de deter­mi­na­ti­on. They con­nec­ted their sta­ti­ons in Ebeltoft­ham­na and at Col­l­ins­od­den with an impro­vi­sed tele­pho­ne line!

Click on thumb­nail to open an enlar­ged ver­si­on of the spe­ci­fic pho­to.

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last modification: 2020-09-01 · copyright: Rolf Stange
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