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Home → May, 2018

Monthly Archives: May 2018 − News & Stories


One night’s sai­ling had taken us far into the inner bran­ches of Isfjord and we woke up to a fan­ta­stic pan­ora­ma in Bil­lefjord. Mir­ror images on the water and dozens of seals lying on the ice! No landing to start with, as the bay was still fro­zen and the shores blo­cked by ice, but we tho­rough­ly enjoy­ed.


Sce­n­ery in Bil­lefjord.

It was loci­gal to con­ti­nue just around the cor­ner to the migh­ty Nor­dens­ki­öld­breen. One of Isfjord’s big­gest gla­ciers and more or less our last chan­ce for a polar bear sight­ing.

Nordenskiöldbreen, Billefjord

Sce­n­ery in Bil­lefjord, Nor­dens­ki­öld­breen.

Stun­ning sce­n­ery and a love­ly encoun­ter with a Beard­ed seal, but no polar bear …

Bearded seal, Nordenskiöldbreen

Beard­ed seal at Nor­dens­ki­öld­breen.

Then it was time for a landing. Cho­sing a beau­tiful spot in Bil­lefjord not far from Nor­dens­ki­öld­breen, I went back to old “hun­ting grounds” (not lite­ral­ly) which brought back many fond memo­ries. That was just me per­so­nal­ly, but ever­y­bo­dy enjoy­ed the walk, the sce­n­ery and the silence.

Landing at Brucebyen

Landing near Bruce­by­en. Always the­se ter­ri­bly long Zodiac rides from ship to shore! 😉

Bruce­by­en was the site whe­re a Scot­tish com­pa­ny inves­ti­ga­ted coal occur­ren­ces around 1920. A short-lived adven­ture.



Then, final­ly … we were almost on the way out of Bil­lefjord, then we got our polar bear! Distant, yes, thus cer­tain­ly not allo­wing for world-class pho­to­gra­phy. But it was our polar bear! Cle­ar­ly visi­ble with bino­cu­lars, it brought a smi­le on ever­y­bo­dies face.

Polar bear, Nordenskiöldbreen

Polar bear at Nor­dens­ki­öld­breen, if you can see it. It was a bit distant, but it was our polar bear, and it was real! 🙂

So it was a hap­py ship that set cour­se for Lon­gye­ar­by­en in the late after­noon.

Isfjord: Alk­hor­net, Barents­burg

It is real­ly ful­ly win­ter still here in Isfjord. Snow, snow, snow. Add to that some sun, the sound of a birdcliff in the back­ground and a wide pan­ora­ma of fjord and coast, moun­ta­ins and gla­ciers, reinde­er and geese on the first bits of open tun­dra. Does it get more beau­tiful than this? Hard­ly.

Schnee, Trygghamna

Late win­ter in Trygg­ham­na.

Harbour seal

Har­bour seal.

Snow buntings, Alkhornet

Snow bun­tings at Alk­hor­net.


Some gol­den moments at Alk­hor­net.

We also made a visit to the Ymer­buk­ta swim­ming club. Always nice to meet the locals 🙂


Ymer­buk­ta swim­ming club.

Many will pro­ba­b­ly agree that Barents­burg is not more beau­tiful, not in a clas­si­cal sen­se. But dif­fe­rent. Very dif­fe­rent! It is his­to­ri­cal and poli­ti­cal. We did have a clo­se look at all of this. If you have missed this, than you have not ful­ly unders­tood what Spits­ber­gen is all about today. Lenin would agree.

Lenin in Barentsburg

Lenin in Barents­burg.

Loo­king back at the last cou­ple of days, we had ple­nty of good reasons to rai­se the glas­ses to a won­derful trip. So we did in the evening. A skål to Cap­tain Mario and chef Piet! And of cour­se to the who­le crew, but cap­tain and chef are key posi­ti­ons as ever­y­bo­dy knows who has tra­vel­led on a ship. A word for all of you who have tra­vel­led on Anti­gua in recent years and who are curious how things are going here now: of cour­se I was also curious how it would be after our for­mer Cap­tain Joa­chim and chef Sascha had set cour­se for new adven­tures. Big shoes to fill, as all of our fel­low tra­vel­lers will con­firm. So I am more than hap­py to tell you know that I am loo­king for­ward to many more trips to come with Anti­gua! We have had a gre­at jour­ney now (and still not finis­hed yet)!


Thumbs up for the Anti­gua-chef Piet!


We could spend the who­le day in Kongsfjord. This post­card-level-beau­tiful fjord con­sists, next to moun­ta­ins, of many lar­ge gla­cier, and we had a very good and clo­se look at seve­ral ones of them, both from a land­ba­sed per­spec­ti­ve and from the sea. This alre­a­dy descri­bes most of today’s acti­vi­ties suf­fi­ci­ent­ly.


At Blom­strand­breen.

Humpback whale, Kongsfjord

Hump­back wha­le in Kongsfjord.

We were at the right time at the right place to meet a Hump­back wha­le who waved us a fri­end­ly fare­well with his migh­ty flu­ke. And to round the day off, we went for some insi­de insights of Blom­strand­hal­vøya.

Iceberg, Kongsfjord

Ice­berg in Kongsfjord.

Coastal cave, Blomstrandhalvøya

Coas­tal cave, Blom­strand­hal­vøya.

Ano­ther beau­tiful day in the Arc­tic!

For­lands­und, Ny-Åle­sund

The wind that had bothe­red us yes­ter­day evening ser­ved us well later during the night and car­ri­ed us far north, so we woke up with wal­rus­ses just around the cor­ner and of cour­se we made good use of the oppor­tu­ni­ty ☺


Wal­rus­ses in For­lands­und.

Ny-Åle­sund is of cour­se a clas­sic on most Spits­ber­gen voy­a­ges, but on this par­ti­cu­lar trip, it is a rather unex­pec­ted geo­gra­phi­cal high­light in the truest sen­se of the world. Who would have thought just a few days ago that we would make it this far north? But here we were, and we could even enjoy bril­li­ant suns­hi­ne – a rare thing on the west coast of Spits­ber­gen – and then, final­ly, a calm night in the har­bour. Some­thing we had well deser­ved, as we all agreed!


The air­ship mast at Ny-Åle­sund.


The pas­sa­ge during the night from Horn­sund up to Bell­sund could have been a bit smoot­her, but it was all for­got­ten when we were gree­ted by some very curious reinde­er in Bell­sund, with a gla­cier in the back­ground! So we did later, stan­ding on a litt­le hill, enjoy­ing an ama­zing view over the fast ice in Van Mijenfjord.

Svalbard Reindeer, Bellsund

Sval­bard Reinde­er are smal­ler than their rela­ti­ves on the main­land.

Later we saw some wal­rus­ses, also with a gre­at scenic back­drop. Bell­sund is one of Spitsbergen’s most beau­tiful places. It is easy to get lost here, men­tal­ly!


View over Bell­sund

And now the­re are some kilos of pla­s­tic less on the bea­ches in Bell­sund. We also remo­ved a fishing net. The­re was a smal­ler pie­ce of fishing net whe­re 2 reinde­er had got ent­an­gled. At least one of them had died with the net in the ant­lers. The other one may have escaped. Awful! This who­le pla­s­tic issue will stay with us for a long time, I am afraid. The­re is still a looooot of work to do. Most of it far south of Spits­ber­gen, by the way.

Other than that: ano­ther beau­tiful day in the Arc­tic!


Remains of fishing nets and other pla­s­tic was­te have often tra­vel­led thou­sands of miles befo­re they end up on Spits­ber­gen.


The pas­sa­ge from Bear Island to Horn­sund was fast and good. The timing could not have been bet­ter: short­ly befo­re we ente­red Horn­sund, the wind tur­ned to the north and picked up to gale force. This would not have been gre­at at all at open sea, but as it was, it did not mat­ter much and some hours later we were firm­ly ancho­red in a shel­te­red bay deep­ly insi­de Horn­sund. Not­hing was to be seen of the land­scape as ever­y­thing was hid­den behind den­se snow show­ers. We have obvious­ly arri­ved in the high arc­tic!


The gla­cier Horn­breen, South-Spits­ber­gen

Today, howe­ver, it cle­ared up and we even got some blue sky and bright suns­hi­ne. Love­ly! It was good to get some solid ground under our boots again, so we hik­ed across an island and enjoy­ed gre­at views of the sce­n­ery. Later we went out for a stun­ning zodiac crui­se bet­ween many small ice­bergs which were shi­ning in the sun, and final­ly to a migh­ty gla­cier front in Bre­pol­len in inner­most Horn­sund. Our first day in Spits­ber­gen, and Horn­sund has shown us some of his best sides!


Anti­gua well shel­te­red in the bay of Bre­pol­len, Horn­sund


Belu­ga wha­les swim­ming through Hornsund/ Ves­t­re Bur­ger­buk­ta

Bear Island (Bjørnøya)

Con­side­ring the wea­ther fore­cast, I had been rather opti­mi­stic regar­ding today’s visit to Bear Island, but less so when I saw how the wind and waves came from the sou­thwest, rol­ling around the sou­thern tip of the island and making the sup­po­sedly shel­te­red eas­tern side an uncom­for­ta­ble place to be. So I was rather uncer­tain if we could make it ashore today.

 Stappen, Bear Island

Which way to Bear Island, plea­se?

Sør­ham­na was cle­ar­ly not an opti­on, and a quick look into the bays fur­ther north did not give us much in terms of useful opti­ons eit­her. To get at least a bit of shel­ter, we ended up drop­ping the anchor in Røed­vi­ka clo­se to Mise­ry­fjel­let. No chan­ce to get ashore here, but any­way it was good to have Anti­gua reason­ab­ly calm for a while.

After having obser­ved the wind and wea­ther for a while, Mario, Sarah and I took a Zodiac to see if the­re was real­ly no chan­ce to get ashore any­whe­re. The wind see­med to have cal­med down at least a bit. This is our 8th visit to Bear Island with SV Anti­gua, and we can’t pos­si­bly make this the first one wit­hout a landing? Of cour­se it is up to mother natu­re in the end, but we wan­ted to give it a try at least … the key to suc­cess tur­ned out to be that Mario took the Anti­gua clo­se to the coast in a drift posi­ti­on whe­re islets and rocks took most of the power out of the swell, so we could board the Zodiacs safe­ly and go ashore on a love­ly beach which its­elf was per­fect­ly calm. Heia Bear Island! This area, on the sou­the­as­tern coast of the island, is among­st the most beau­tiful spots. A small, but good impres­si­on of the beau­ty of the natu­re on this remo­te island which is still rather rare­ly visi­ted, being off the usu­al tou­rist trails.

It was with a big smi­le that ever­y­bo­dy got back later on board. In the evening, we set cour­se for Spits­ber­gen.

Bear Island

Made it! View over Bear Island

Barents Sea

Always kee­ping a good eye on the wea­ther fore­cast, we deci­ded in Stok­mark­nes to make this our depar­tu­re point from the main­land of Nor­way and to set cour­se direct­ly for the Barents Sea and Bear Island. The­re is a lot of wind in the north Atlan­tic, and if we are too late, we will get more of it than we will like, and we will get it on the nose. So, bet­ter to be out ear­ly to avo­id that! Taking off here and now, we have a good chan­ce for very fair sai­ling winds on our way north.

 Barents Sea

Set­ting cour­se for the Barents Sea and Bear Island

So we said good­bye and fare­well to main­land Nor­way in Stok­mark­nes and a few hours later we were alre­a­dy at sea. Sails up and cour­se for Bear Island (Bjørnøya)! That was our mot­to for the next round­about 44 hours. Sun, sai­ling with 9-10 knots, tho­se were the the­mes of the day on Wed­nes­day. The same, just wit­hout sun, on Thurs­day mor­ning, but now we have got Bear Island 20 miles ahead of us and we will drop anchor in a very few hours!

Ves­terå­len: Stok­mark­nes

This bridge last night tur­ned out to be an inte­res­t­ing thing. A 30 met­re high bridge and a 31 met­re high ship. Well, but the 30 met­res of the bridge are the gua­ran­teed mini­mum hight abo­ve the hig­hest high water ever. To be sure, we sent mate Nick up the Besan to see if the main mast would fit.

Bridge at Stokmarknes, Vesterålen

Bridge at Stok­mark­nes, Ves­terå­len.

It did. The­re were still seve­ral met­res of space.

Soon the­re­af­ter we had rea­ched Stok­mark­nes in the late evening hours. Next to us, the old Hur­tig­ru­ten ship Finn­mar­ken is bea­ched, now ser­ving as a muse­um.

Hurtigruten ship Finnmarken in Stokmarknes, Vesterålen

Old Hur­tig­ru­ten ship Finn­mar­ken, now a muse­um, in Stok­mark­nes, Ves­terå­len.

After a love­ly sun­set (the last one of the voya­ge!) and a calm night in the har­bour, we woke up to found the day to be grey and rai­ny. Nevert­hel­ess, we went off for a nice hike up the hills behind Stok­mark­nes.

Snow fields, Stokmarknes, Vesterålen

Snow fields in the moun­ta­ins behind Stok­mark­nes, Ves­terå­len.

Nevert­hel­ess, it was a good hike with some nice views under the clouds, and it is always good to get some exer­cise. Espe­ci­al­ly if you have got some days at sea ahead. And we will soon set sail for Bear Island (Bjørnøya)!

View of Stokmarknes, Vesterålen

Grey view of Stok­mark­nes, Ves­terå­len.

Lofo­ten: Skro­va & Troll­fjord

The wea­ther was much more agreeable today: still clou­dy, but no rain and very litt­le wind. So we went to the love­ly island and har­bour of Skro­va, which we rea­ched after a short pas­sa­ge from Kabel­våg during break­fast. Skro­va has very nice oppor­tu­ni­ties for various hikes. The top of the moun­tain Skro­vaf­jel­let was still hid­den in clouds, but the lower moun­tain Stap­pen was free and pro­vi­ded some gre­at pan­o­r­amic views.

Skrova, Lofoten

View over Skro­va, Lofo­ten.

On the way fur­ther north we had nice, gent­le sai­ling wind wit­hout too big waves. Per­fect con­di­ti­ons to enjoy the view of SV Anti­gua under sail from the din­gy. A gre­at and impres­si­ve view! Then the swell went up again and the wind down and so did the sails, con­se­quent­ly.

Antigua under sail, Vestfjord

SV Anti­gua under sail in nor­t­hern Ves­t­fjord, clo­se to Litl­mol­la.

Later during the after­noon, we rea­ched the famous Troll­fjord. A place whe­re natu­re had put a lot of effort into crea­ting a stun­ning tes­tim­o­ny to her own, gre­at powers. Che­ers to the ice-age gla­ciers that have made this ama­zing bit of land­scape!

Antigua in Trollfjord

SV Anti­gua in Troll­fjord.

In the end, even a Sea eagle tur­ned up and cir­cled around the ship. A gre­at, rich day!

Sea eagle in Trollfjord

Sea eagle in Troll­fjord.


Last night, we had a gre­at sun­set at sea, behind the moun­ta­ins of the island of Aus­t­vå­gøy, while we were gent­ly sai­ling nor­the­ast­wards … very nice! A beau­tiful pas­sa­ge with love­ly visu­al impres­si­ons, that’s how we like it!

Sunset over Austvågøy, Lofoten

Sun­set over Aus­t­vå­gøy, Lofo­ten.

And it was just as nice that we still found space in the litt­le har­bour of Kabel­våg, alt­hough the­re was alre­a­dy a ship along­side. But we could go along­side that one and thus had a peaceful place to stay for tomor­row. Which is good, becau­se it is sup­po­sed to be rather uncom­for­ta­ble in the area tomor­row.

Storm clouds over Austvågøy, Lofoten

Storm clouds over Aus­t­vå­gøy, Lofo­ten.

Which was not exag­ge­ra­ted. During the mor­ning, it was still quite ok, but the clouds spo­ke a clear lan­guage. It star­ted rai­ning towards mid-day. But we had a good time in the muse­um and in the mari­ne aqua­ri­um of Kabel­våg. Warm and dry and lots of inte­res­t­ing stufff to see.

Fishermen's accommodation (Rorbu), museum Kabelvåg, Lofoten

This is whe­re the fisher­men lived. 8 men in one room with 4 bunks. In this room, they slept, lived, wwork­ed, coo­ked, ate and dried their wet fishing gear …

Owner's villa, museum Kabelvåg, Lofoten

… and this is whe­re the owner of the “Fis­ke­vær” lived, pro­ba­b­ly best trans­la­ted as “fishing har­bour”.

The after­noon went with lots of rain. Some eider­ducks are sit­ting on the shore, the waves are brea­king on the rocks out­side the har­bour. Some bra­ve peo­p­le went for a hike, but many pre­fer to visit the Anti­gua-cine­ma and to enjoy a cup of cof­fee and a book.

King Øystein, Kabelvåg

King Wikin­ger­kö­nig Øystein keeps a watchful eye over Kabel­våg.

Even a Jazz con­cert that was sche­du­led for tonight in the church is can­cel­led. Too bad, that would have been per­fect for a day like this. But the more cosy it is insi­de, while the rain is fal­ling out­side and the waves are going high at sea.

Sky over Kabelvåg

Sky over Aus­t­vå­gøy.

Tomor­row will be a new day with new wea­ther!


We were a bit curious how it would be to get Anti­gua into the small har­bour of Nusfjord in the strong winds that we had, but they just cal­med down and it tur­ned out to be fine. And so did the after­noon. The wea­ther cle­ared up and it got real­ly nice and plea­sant. And then, Nusfjord is such a love­ly place!

Nusfjord: Trockenfisch

Old fri­ends in Nusfjord.

Pro­ba­b­ly the most famous of the tra­di­tio­nal Lofo­ten fishing vil­la­ges, Nusfjord is a beau­tiful set­ting of old buil­dings around a small, well-shel­te­red natu­ral har­bour. The old shop was open and very popu­lar, and we went hiking over some rocky hills near the sea, enjoy­ing the views over moun­ta­ins, the coast and Ves­t­fjord. An extre­me­ly enjoya­ble after­noon!


The har­bour of. And, actual­ly, the who­le rest of it.

Now we are sai­ling north (or east, rather) in the evening sun, hea­ding for Kabel­våg.

Lofo­ten: Rei­ne

Some hours sai­ling (wit­hout engi­ne!) took us across Ves­t­fjord to Mos­ken­esøya, the sou­thern­most island of the main chain of the Lofo­ten islands (the­re are some out­liers, Værøy and Røst, far out in the sea). Most peo­p­le enjoy­ed the pas­sa­ge, alt­hough it was the first day on the ship. Col­la­te­ral dama­ge rela­ted to the moti­on of the ship was not unhe­ard of, but rather limi­t­ed. Good to get some trai­ning! We will see some more open water later on this trip.

SV Antigua with Captain Mario

Lea­ving Bodø: Cap­tain Mario gives steam.

SV Antigua under sail across Vestfjord

Sai­ling across Ves­t­fjord to the Lofo­ten islands.

But for the moment we are in Rei­ne, one of the sou­thern­most fishing vil­la­ges in Lofo­ten. Admit­ted­ly, the wea­ther could have been bet­ter. But we are on Lofo­ten. And it is actual­ly real­ly beau­tiful as soon as some sun is brea­king through the clouds!

Rainbow over Reine, Lofoten

Rain­bow over Rei­ne, Lofo­ten.

This year’s catch of cod is still han­ging on the dry­ing racks, soon it will be taken down for export.

Dry fish, Reine, Lofoten

Dry­ing racks with cod in Rei­ne, Lofo­ten.

Kit­ti­wa­kes are ever­y­day birds in the north. They are bree­ding in many places on steep cliffs. But a kit­ti­wa­ke on a nest on a tree in a gar­den? Never seen that befo­re! 🙂

Kittiwake, Reine, Lofoten

Kit­ti­wa­ke on a nest on a tree! Quite unu­su­al for the­se cliff-bree­ders.

The­re is always some­thing to dis­co­ver in the­se Lofo­ten fishing vil­la­ges. Even in grey and wet wea­ther, the­re are the colours of the woo­den hou­ses and the flowers. But it was inde­ed a good thing that the Café ope­ned at 11 a.m., and almost ever­y­bo­dy found the way the­re soon. No sur­pri­se!

Colours of flowers and houses, Reine, Lofoten

Colours of flowers and hou­ses in Rei­ne.

Now we are hea­ding for Nusfjord and curious what the after­noon will bring the­re.

Arc­tic under sail 2018: start­ing with SV Anti­gua in Bodø

Bodø! This is whe­re the arc­tic cir­cle is clo­sing. Not the arc­tic cir­cle that marks the sou­thern­most appearance of the mid­night sun, that is at 66°33’N, about 44 miles south of Bodø. But the cir­cle of the arc­tic sai­ling adven­tures of the sum­mer. The first sai­ling trip of the arc­tic starts here in Bodø now in late May and the last one will end here in ear­ly Novem­ber, clo­sing a very lar­ge cir­cle of thou­sands of miles sai­ling arc­tic waters, many kilo­me­ters in Zodiacs in the fjords, hiking on the tun­dra, on moun­ta­ins, lots of adven­tures, wind and wea­ther, encoun­tering wild­life of all sorts, mee­ting peo­p­le … and the­re will be lots of gre­at pho­tos and many ent­ries here in the arc­tic blog 2018.

SV Antigua, Bodø

SV Anti­gua rea­dy to set sail in Bodø.

We will be com­ple­te in a few hours, with about 30 tra­vel­lers from the Net­her­lands, Ger­ma­ny and Aus­tria, and then we will sail across Ves­t­fjord to spend the next days in Lofo­ten. Later, we will sail nor­thwards to Trom­sø and then the Spits­ber­gen adven­ture will start. If you want to join us digi­tal­ly, then just come back and visit this blog!

SV Antigua, Bodø

About to start in a few hours! 🙂

12,000 micro­pla­s­tic parts in one lit­re of sea ice …

The Arc­tic ice is signi­fi­cant­ly more con­ta­mi­na­ted with micro­pla­s­tics than pre­vious­ly assu­med. This was the result of a stu­dy of rese­ar­chers at the Alfred Wege­ner Insti­tu­te in Bre­mer­ha­ven which was published in April.

Samples from three expe­di­ti­ons in 2014 and 2015 were exami­ned, and thanks to an impro­ved exami­na­ti­on method using infrared light, more and signi­fi­cant­ly smal­ler parts could be iden­ti­fied than in pre­vious inves­ti­ga­ti­ons.

Pre­su­ma­b­ly, the micro­pla­s­tic ori­gi­na­tes from the gre­at gar­ba­ge patches in the Atlan­tic and Paci­fic Oce­an bet­ween Hawaii and North Ame­ri­ca. But local sources of pol­lu­ti­on have also been iden­ti­fied, for exam­p­le paint par­tic­les from ships or nylon par­tic­les from fishing nets.

Micro­pla­s­tics are tiny pla­s­tic par­tic­les that are smal­ler than five mil­li­me­ters in size. It is pro­du­ced during the decay of lar­ger pla­s­tic parts, during the washing of syn­the­tic fibres, but is also con­tai­ned in many clea­ning and cos­me­tic pro­ducts.

Litt­le is known about the con­se­quen­ces of micro­pla­s­tic con­ta­mi­na­ti­on for the envi­ron­ment and humans. In labo­ra­to­ry stu­dies, howe­ver, mus­sels show­ed inflamm­a­to­ry reac­tions and fish beha­viou­ral chan­ges.

Also pla­s­tic was­te from cen­tral Euro­pean count­ries inclu­ding Ger­ma­ny ends up in the Arc­tic. For exam­p­le, the inves­ti­ga­ti­on of pla­s­tic was­te coll­ec­ted on Spitsbergen’s bea­ches, reve­a­led that seven per­cent came from Ger­ma­ny!

Every year tou­rists coll­ect tons of pla­s­tic gar­ba­ge from the bea­ches in Spits­ber­gen encou­ra­ged by pri­va­te and public initia­ti­ves, by the way also on the Spits­ber­gen sai­ling trips with SV Anti­gua :-).

Plastic waste on Spitsbergen

Pla­s­tic was­te coll­ec­ted on the beach of the Hin­lo­pen Strait, Nor­the­ast of Spits­ber­gen.

Refe­rence to two pro­jects wort­hy of sup­port should not be miss­ing here eit­her:
The Oce­an Cle­a­nup deve­lo­ps tech­ni­cal sys­tems with the aim of redu­cing a huge pla­s­tic vor­tex in the Paci­fic by 50% in five years and ulti­m­ate­ly sup­p­ly­ing the fil­te­red pla­s­tic to recy­cling sys­tems.

Oce­an Care car­ri­es out pro­tec­tion and rese­arch pro­jects, orga­ni­s­es cam­paigns and edu­ca­tio­nal pro­jects and is invol­ved in inter­na­tio­nal bodies, for exam­p­le as a UN spe­cial advi­ser on mari­ne pro­tec­tion issues.

Source: Natu­re Com­mu­ni­ca­ti­ons


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