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Yearly Archives: 2016 − News


Evacua­ti­on of Nyby­en lifted

Yesterday’s evacua­ti­on of Longyearbyen’s upper area Nyby­en is lifted. Also the road bet­ween the school and Nyby­en is open again.

Sys­sel­man­nen and other aut­ho­ri­ties (NVE) have inves­ti­ga­ted the snow on the slo­pes abo­ve Nyby­en and other parts of Lon­gye­ar­by­en which are poten­ti­al­ly expo­sed to avalan­ches. It is cur­r­ent­ly offi­cial­ly con­si­de­red that the­re is no risk of major avalan­ches that might hit buil­dings.

The­re are no reports about major dama­ge from last night’s storm inclu­ding avalan­ches. A post box was blown away and a dog was cove­r­ed by snow in the dogyard, but it was found and dug out in good con­di­ti­on.

The Sys­sel­man­nen reminds ever­y­bo­dy that the avalan­che risk for Lon­gye­ar­by­ens sur­roun­dings is still con­si­de­red high and to be accord­in­gly care­ful with any out­side acti­vi­ties.

Longyearbyen’s upper area Nyby­en: the recent evacua­ti­on becau­se of avalan­che risk is lifted.

Longyearbyen avalanche risk: Nybyen evacuation

Source: Sys­sel­man­nen

Avalan­che dan­ger: Nyby­en evacua­ted

The wea­ther fore­cast for Lon­gye­ar­by­en says strong wind incre­a­sing to full storm during the night to Thurs­day, com­bi­ned with strong snow­fall. This wea­ther situa­ti­on means an incre­a­sed risk of snow avalan­ches. The cur­rent avalan­che warning is level 4 on a sca­le of 5 levels. As a con­se­quence, the Sys­sel­man­nen has deci­ded to evacua­te Nyby­en.

Smal­ler snow avalan­ches on the slo­pes sur­roun­ding Lon­gye­ar­by­en are exepc­ted, but so far no major events that may cau­se dama­ge dama­ge to buil­dings. Nyby­en, Longyearbyen’s upper part, is faced with the grea­test risk, hence the pre­cau­tio­na­ry evacua­ti­on. Nyby­en is main­ly used for stu­dent housing and guest houses, but the­re are also a few flats whe­re locals live. Most stu­dents are cur­r­ent­ly at home else­whe­re and not in Lon­gye­ar­by­en. The road to Nyby­en is clo­sed from the school. It is stron­gly advi­sed to resign from any field trips.

Other parts of Lon­gyear­ben are cur­r­ent­ly not con­cer­ned by evacua­tions. This inclu­des the resi­den­ti­al area near Suk­ker­top­pen, which was hit by an avalan­che in Decem­ber 2015 with let­hal con­se­quen­ces. The deve­lo­p­ment will be con­stant­ly moni­to­red by the Sys­sel­man­nen and rele­vant insti­tu­ti­ons.

Lon­gye­ar­by­en during the polar night. The steep slo­pes sur­roun­ding the sett­le­ment can pro­du­ce avalan­ches.

Longyearbyen avalanche risk

Source: Sys­sel­man­nen

No Christ­mas gifts? May­be it’s the rein­de­er…

If San­ta Claus does not bring gifts on Satur­day, that could also be due to his rein­de­er. Whe­ther they can pull the sledge hea­vi­ly packed with gifts is ques­tion­ab­le. Becau­se the rein­de­er on Spitz­ber­gen are get­ting thin­ner!

The sub­s­pe­ci­es – the Sval­bard rein­de­er – is alrea­dy some­what smal­ler than their rela­ti­ves on the main­land. 135 ani­mals were weig­hed by the rese­ar­cher Ste­ve “Mis­ter Rein­de­er” Albon from the James Hutton Insti­tu­te in Scot­land sin­ce 1994 every year in April. Rudolph Nor­mal­ren­tier lost seven kilos during this peri­od. Rea­son is that the ani­mals find less to eat in win­ter.

Hungry: Sval­bard rein­de­er

And who is to bla­me? Most likely once again cli­ma­te chan­ge. Becau­se of hig­her average tem­pe­ra­tures it rains on Sval­bard more often than it snows. The rain free­zes and forms an ice lay­er on top of the snow. This makes it more dif­fi­cult for the rein­de­er to come to the lichens, of which they main­ly live in the win­ter.

Nevertheless, this does not seem to affect the popu­la­ti­on: Sin­ce the 1990s, the num­ber of Sval­bard rein­de­er has risen from 800 to 1400 in the Advent­da­len. What actual­ly sounds like good news could lead to a fami­ne among the rein­de­er in the long term as the com­pe­ti­ti­on for food incre­a­ses.

We keep our fin­gers cros­sed for San­ta Claus and his rein­de­er, and in any case wish ever­y­bo­dy a Mer­ry Christ­mas!

Sources: TV2, Dagens Nærings­liv

Head of north­po­le expe­di­ti­on “Ark­ti­ka 2.0” must go to court

A french skip­per, who is accu­sed of having vio­la­ted several of the strict requi­re­ments for the pro­tec­tion of the envi­ron­ment on Sval­bard, is to pay a fine of 25,000 crowns (€ 2750). The two French adven­tu­rers Gil­les and Ale­xia Elkaim were actual­ly on the way to the North Pole in Sep­tem­ber and Octo­ber this year, but had to rever­se due to bad wea­ther con­di­ti­ons.

The fact that they sought pro­tec­tion from a storm in one of the most severely pro­tec­ted are­as of Sval­bard with their sailor “Ark­ti­ka” could now be their doom. The 56-year-old skip­per does not want to pay the penal­ty. The case will then be heard befo­re the District Court (Tin­g­rett) Nord-Troms on Febru­a­ry 23rd and 24th.

The adven­tu­rers are accu­sed of having ancho­red in the area around Kong Karls Land in the east of Sval­bard wit­hin the pro­tec­tion zone for three days, and having ent­e­red the island of Svens­køya with their seven hus­kies. Svens­køya is sub­ject to rigo­rous rules of pro­tec­tion: it is for­bid­den to approach the island more than 500 meters, and ent­e­ring is for­bid­den all year round. The skip­per is also sup­po­sed to have ille­gal­ly impor­ted his dogs to Sval­bard and to not have appro­ved per­mis­si­on for his expe­di­ti­on. In lar­ge parts of Sval­bard, the­re is a requi­re­ment for indi­vi­du­al tou­rists.

Polar bear in the Duve­fjor­den, whe­re the French expe­di­ti­on ancho­red. The Duve­fjord is loca­ted in the Nord­aust-Sval­bard Natu­re Reser­ve and is also pro­tec­ted as a sci­en­ti­fic refe­rence area.

Often such dis­pu­tes are a ques­ti­on of the point of view. Gil­les Elkaim descri­bes the case on 23rd Novem­ber from his per­spec­ti­ve on his Face­book page: he asked the Sys­sel­man­nen for aut­ho­riz­a­ti­on to over­win­ter on Octo­ber 8th, but did not recei­ve a respon­se for days. Elkaim claims also to have reques­ted for per­mis­si­on to import the dogs alrea­dy in July – without reac­tion. The “Ark­ti­ka” had con­si­derable pro­blems with the engi­ne and a water pump at the begin­ning of Octo­ber and could the­re­fo­re not con­ti­nue. He wan­ted to get the ship safe from an emer­gen­cy. To get the boat out of the pro­tec­ted area, the Sys­sel­manns deci­ded to tow the “Ark­ti­ka” and the crew to Lon­gye­ar­by­en on Octo­ber 13th. An action with con­se­quen­ces. The expe­di­ti­on has been ter­mi­na­ted.

In the Duve­fjor­den and on the Svens­køya ancho­red the Arc­tic befo­re being towed to Longyearbyen​.

Home­page of the expe­di­ti­on
Source: Sval­bard­pos­ten, iFinnmark.no

Hau­ke Trinks is dead

Hau­ke Trinks was not only a sci­en­tist, but also a Spits­ber­gen adven­tu­rer. He win­te­red three times in remo­te pla­ces nort­hern Sval­bard. Born on Febru­ar 19, 1943 in Ber­lin, he beca­me pre­si­dent of the Tech­ni­cal Uni­ver­si­ty in Ham­burg-Har­burg. After finis­hing his sci­en­ti­fic care­er, he had more time for his pas­si­ons, sai­ling and adven­ture.

In 1999-2000, Hau­ke Trinks win­te­red on his own on his yacht Mes­uf in Mus­ham­na in Woodfjord. As a sci­en­tist, he wan­ted to find evi­dence for his theo­ry of an ori­gin of life in the ice. Two more win­te­rings fol­lo­wed, in 2003-2004 in the old sta­ti­on in Kinn­vi­ka on Nord­aus­t­land and in 2010-2011 once again on his boat in Mus­ham­na. On the­se two later win­te­rings, he was accom­pa­nied by Marie Tié­che. Hau­ke Trinks told his arc­tic adven­ture sto­ries in several books and docu­men­ta­ti­ons to a wider public. The­re has hard­ly been a visit to Woodfjord sin­ce without the ques­ti­on com­ing up: “isn’t it someh­we­re around here whe­re Hau­ke Trinks win­te­red?”

It is up to dedi­ca­ted sci­en­tists to judge his efforts and results as a reser­acher. Opi­ni­ons regar­ding this may be varied, but that does not mat­ter now and here. As a per­son, Hau­ke Trinks easi­ly felt at home in Spits­ber­gen, some­thing that was very evi­dent during several mee­tings this aut­hor had with Trinks in Mus­ham­na, Kinn­vi­ka and Lon­gye­ar­by­en. To share just one of the­se unf­or­gett­able moments: when we approa­ched Kinn­vi­ka with MV Pro­fes­sor Mul­ta­novs­kiy in the late sum­mer of 2003, when Hau­ke and Marie were just sett­ling down the­re for the­re win­te­ring, they quick­ly jum­ped into their Zodiac and took off to disap­pe­ar deep in Murchi­son­fjord as they saw us com­ing. But as we were about to lea­ve, they retur­ned quick­ly and Hau­ke, being a good nar­ra­tor, was hap­py to share sto­ries and know­ledge with us.

Hau­ke Trinks kept a strong con­nec­tion to the north and sett­led down in his new second home on Uts­i­ra in Nor­way. He died in Decem­ber 2016 at the age of 73 in Spits­ber­gen or on Uts­i­ra, the sources are not yet qui­te clear about this. We will keep fond memo­ries of him as one of few adven­tu­rers who, in recent years, ven­tu­red on mon­th-long expe­di­ti­ons on his own or with just one more per­son into the polar night and the ice, fol­lowing a sci­en­ti­fic quest, and as a uni­que, very like­ab­le cha­rac­ter.

Hau­ke Trinks and Marie Tiè­che in Kinn­vi­ka, 2003.

Hauke Trinks und Marie Tiéche, Kinnvika

Sources: Press release Tech­ni­sche Uni­ver­si­tät Ham­burg-Har­burg, Ham­bur­ger Abend­blatt

The avalan­che risk report for Lon­gye­ar­by­en has been publis­hed

The avalan­che risk report for Lon­gye­ar­by­en is now avail­ab­le. After the dead­ly avalan­che on Decem­ber 19, 2015 and the pre­cau­tio­na­ry evacua­tions in ear­ly Novem­ber 2016, the report has been awai­ted with eager­ness. It was com­pi­led by NVE (Nor­ges vass­drags- og ener­gi­di­rek­to­rat, Nor­we­gi­an direc­to­ra­te for waters and ener­gy wit­hin the minis­try for oil and ener­gy) and it is based on maps and aeri­al pho­to­gra­phy, ter­rain mode­ling, cli­ma­te ana­ly­sis, his­to­ri­cal expe­ri­ence, on-site inves­ti­ga­ti­ons and com­pu­ter mode­ling.

For the public, the results are more rele­vant than the metho­di­cal back­ground. The report inclu­des a map that shows end­an­ge­red are­as in three colours. The are­as whe­re dama­ge cau­sed by avalan­ches hap­pens with a likeli­hood of 1:5000 per year is mar­ked in yel­low. In other words: dama­ge cau­sed by an avalan­che has to be expec­ted every 5000 years – sta­tis­ti­cal­ly, that is.

Are­as mar­ked oran­ge have an annu­al risk of 1:000 or avalan­che dama­ge every 1000 years. And then the­re are the red are­as, whe­re an avalan­che has to be expec­ted once per cen­tu­ry. The risk of a devas­ta­ting event is one per cent every year.

This risk assess­ment inclu­des snow and slush avalan­ches, muds­li­des and rock­falls. Some parts of Lon­gye­ar­by­en are “only” expo­sed to par­ti­cu­lar hazards wit­hin this list. This can mean that dif­fe­rent are­as may be expo­sed to dan­ger at dif­fe­rent sea­sons or in dif­fe­rent wea­ther situa­tions.

A first look at the avalan­che risk map makes the view­er take a breath. No less than 154 flats as well as two guest houses are insi­de the red zone. The­se addres­ses are faced with an annu­al risk of 1:100 of a poten­ti­al­ly cata­stro­phic event, causing gre­at dama­ge and put­ting life at risk.

The obvious ques­ti­on is how Lon­gye­ar­by­en will deal with this situa­ti­on. it is clear that the opti­on to move all the houses con­cer­ned quick­ly to safe are­as is not avail­ab­le. That will neit­her tech­ni­cal­ly nor poli­ti­cal­ly and finan­cial­ly be pos­si­ble, and the­re is the issue of space being avail­ab­le in suf­fi­ci­ent quan­ti­ties in Lon­gye­ar­by­en (remem­ber, it is a val­ley, and the­re are rivers, slo­pes and a fjord not far from whe­re­ver you are). As a result, the houses will remain whe­re­ver they are at least for qui­te a while.

Lon­gye­ar­by­en will obvious­ly be deve­lo­ped in are­as that are not end­an­ge­red, making sure as much housing as pos­si­ble will be avail­ab­le in the­se are­as in the future. Secu­ring dan­ge­rous slo­pes with tech­ni­cal will also be dis­cus­sed.

For the time being, the­re is no other opti­on but kee­ping the avalan­che warning sys­tem upright and evacua­te end­an­ge­red addres­ses in risk situa­tions.

It was empha­si­zed that the­re is a num­ber of com­mu­nities in Nor­way who are in simi­lar situa­tions. In the end, it is nor­ma­li­ty in a moun­tain and win­ter coun­try such as Nor­way, and com­mu­nities will natu­ral­ly have to deal with that. This has recent­ly been igno­red in Lon­gye­ar­by­en. A high pri­ce was paid in Decem­ber 2015.

It can be taken for gran­ted that poli­ti­ci­ans from the local admi­nis­tra­ti­on (Lokals­ty­re) in Lon­gye­ar­by­en to rele­vant depart­ments in Oslo have got some home­work to do. Mean­while, inha­bi­tants of many houses in Lon­gye­ar­by­en will have to live with tem­pora­ry evacua­tions on a short warning during avalan­che risk wea­ther.

Avalan­che risk map for Lon­gye­ar­by­en (NVE).

Avalanche risk map Longyearbyen

Direct link to the avalan­che report and direct link to the avalan­che risk map.

Sources: Sys­sel­man­nen, Sval­bard­pos­ten

Polar bear shot on Prins Karls For­land: fine for the shoo­ter

A polar bear was shot by a Rus­si­an sci­en­tist on August 09 on Prins Karls For­land (see Polar bear shot on Prins Karls For­land). The cir­cum­s­tan­ces see­med doubt­ful: it appears that no serious attempt had been made to sca­re the polar bear away with non-let­hal methods and the let­hal shot was fired at a very ear­ly sta­ge of the encoun­ter from the lar­ge distance of 130 (!) metres. Addi­tio­nal­ly, the aut­ho­ri­ties were only infor­med about the inci­dent the fol­lowing day and not immedia­te­ly, as requi­red.

It was a two year old fema­le, weig­hing 155 kg. The ani­mal had been mar­ked befo­re.

The case was han­ded over by the Sys­sel­man­nen in Lon­gye­ar­by­en to the public pro­se­cu­tor in Trom­sø. The rea­son may have been the juri­di­cal and public cha­rac­ter of the case. When con­si­de­ring the spar­se infor­ma­ti­on that is avail­ab­le, one may quick­ly be temp­ted to con­clu­de that the kil­ling may have been a cri­mi­nal offen­se.

Now the ver­dict from Trom­sø is the­re: the sci­en­tist who had fired the dead­ly shot is con­dem­ned to pay a fine of NOK 15000,- (ca. 1670 Euro). The man has accep­ted the fine, hence the ver­dict is effec­ti­ve.

Char­ges against the other three per­sons who were in the camp tog­e­ther with the shoo­ter have been dis­mis­sed.

The bay Sel­vå­gen a few days befo­re the polar bear was shot on August 09.

Spitsbergen: Selvågen

Source: Sys­sel­man­nen

Autumn in Spits­ber­gen breaks all records

Even though it is gra­du­al­ly get­ting col­der in Spits­ber­gen, the news about record-brea­king tem­pe­ra­tures in the Arc­tic are not stop­ping. For six years, Sval­bard has been signi­fi­cant­ly war­mer than usu­al, and the tem­pe­ra­tures in Novem­ber were up to 10 degrees abo­ve average.

The con­se­quen­ces of some days of extre­me wea­ther with strong pre­ci­pi­ta­ti­on in Novem­ber: At least 50 lands­li­des and avalan­ches were obser­ved, parts of Lon­gye­ar­by­en even had to be evacua­ted.

Cli­ma­te chan­ge also threa­tens the shores, houses and huts. The sea has ero­ded the unf­ro­zen, loo­se ground, which in Novem­ber should have been hard by frost. The hut on the left in the pic­tu­re had to be left for safe­ty rea­sons. Image: ©Rolf Stan­ge

climate changes threatens houses and cottages

Also in other parts of the Arc­tic it beco­mes obvious: It is quick­ly get­ting war­mer than befo­re. This app­lies both to the tem­pe­ra­tures on land as well as in the sea, whe­re up to four or even five (Isfjord, near Lon­gye­ar­by­en) degrees more have been mea­su­red. In some Arc­tic regi­ons, the air tem­pe­ra­tu­re was actual­ly 20 degrees abo­ve average (north pole).

And never befo­re has the­re been so litt­le ice on land as on the sea. Tri­cky: ice reflects the sun’s radia­ti­on. The less ice floats on the sea, the dar­ker the sea sur­face and the more sunshi­ne is absor­bed. Rese­ar­chers are worried that the sum­mer sea ice might disap­pe­ar com­ple­te­ly from the Arc­tic.

In Lon­gye­ar­by­en, nobo­dy is cur­r­ent­ly expec­ting a good ice win­ter with fro­zen fjords for the 2017 sea­son.

On Spits­ber­gen it has been obser­ved for some time that the per­ma­frost ground is get­ting war­mer and begins to thaw. This can lead to sett­le­ment dama­ges on buil­dings, as they are cur­r­ent­ly alrea­dy obser­ved in several cases in Lon­gye­ar­by­en. In other Arc­tic regi­ons such as Sibe­ria, the thawing of per­ma­frost ground in mar­shy are­as, which have stored a lot of orga­nic mate­ri­al in the cold soil, also leads to the release of lar­ge amounts of the high­ly aggres­si­ve green­house gas metha­ne, which fur­ther sti­mu­la­tes cli­ma­te chan­ge.

Cli­ma­te chan­ge is no lon­ger a sca­ry news­pa­per mes­sa­ge on Spits­ber­gen, but an ever­y­day expe­ri­ence with effects on peo­p­les’ dai­ly life. More warm win­ters, avalan­ches and lands­li­des and evacua­tions have to be expec­ted in Spits­ber­gen in the com­ing years.

Sources: NRK, Cli­ma­te Home

Extre­me wea­ther in Spits­ber­gen: avalan­ches in Nor­dens­kiöld Land

The extre­me wea­ther with strong pre­ci­pi­ta­ti­on last week has trig­ge­red more than “just” a few lands­li­des near Lon­gye­ar­by­en. Dama­ge was limi­ted to minor mate­ri­al loss at a dog yard near Lon­gye­ar­by­en (the first one at the road into Advent­da­len). More than 200 peop­le had been evacua­ted from their homes for several days in case of a major event.

Satel­li­te images have now shown that more than 50 lands­li­des were trig­ge­red by the rain­falls just in Nor­dens­kiöld Land bet­ween Lon­gye­ar­by­en and Bar­ents­burg. This shows the lack of sta­bi­li­ty of the ter­rain during peri­ods with strong rain.

Sci­en­tists expect extre­me wea­ther events like last week’s with very strong pre­ci­pi­ta­ti­on to incre­a­se in fre­quen­cy and magnitu­de. Rain­falls of 50 mm wit­hin 24 hours or even more are, so far, unty­pi­cal for the high arc­tic (“polar desert”). This means that geo­mor­pho­lo­gi­cal slo­pe dyna­mics inclu­ding lands­li­des, snow- and slush avalan­ches and rock­falls.

This will be important know­ledge both for arc­tic out­door enthu­si­asts and city plan­ners. Last year, 2 per­sons died in their homes in a snow avalan­che that des­troy­ed several resi­den­ti­al houses in Lon­gye­ar­by­en.

Recent satel­li­te image of Nor­dens­kiöld Land in Spits­ber­gen showing Lands­li­des trig­ge­red by last week’s rain­falls. Image: Copernicus/ESA.

Extreme weather: recent avalanches landslides in Spitsbergen

Sources: bygg.no, UiO

Extre­me wea­ther in Lon­gye­ar­by­en (III): Eva­kua­tions can­cel­led

All evacua­tions in Lon­gye­ar­by­en have been can­cel­led. The wea­ther is calm and the aut­ho­ri­ties have esti­ma­ted the situa­ti­on as safe. Slo­pes that may pro­du­ce lands­li­des will be moni­to­red.

The way west of the cam­ping site towards Bjørn­da­len remains clo­sed. This makes an area inac­ces­si­ble whe­re many locals have leisu­re huts. It is pos­si­ble to walk to the huts, which is, howe­ver, not prac­ti­ca­ble for many pur­po­ses. The huts will only be acces­si­ble again by regu­lar means when the road is ope­ned again or the ter­rain is sui­ta­ble for snow mobi­le traf­fic. Neit­her of the­se opti­ons is cur­r­ent­ly in view.

Some of the huts in this area will have to be moved or aban­do­ned. It has hap­pen­ed befo­re in Spits­ber­gen that huts end­an­ge­red by coas­tal ero­si­on whe­re moved. The most famous examp­le is Fred­heim, the famous trap­per hut in Tem­pel­fjord, which was moved away from the coast in 2015. One or the other hut bet­ween Ves­t­pyn­ten (near the cam­ping site) and Bjørn­da­len will recei­ve a simi­lar tre­at­ment and be moved at least to the other side of the road.

When and how the way its­elf will be secu­red or relo­ca­ted is ano­t­her and cur­r­ent­ly unans­we­red ques­ti­on.

The famous trap­per hut at Fred­heim was moved away from the coast in spring 2015 due to coas­tal ero­si­on.

Fredheim, Tempelfjord

Source: Sys­sel­man­nen, local gos­sip.

Extre­me wea­ther in Lon­gye­ar­by­en (II): evacua­ti­on held upright

Extre­me wea­ther with strong winds and a lot of pre­ci­pi­ta­ti­on has held Lon­gye­ar­by­en in awe during the night from Mon­day to Tues­day. The­re was a fear for lands­li­des from steep and lar­ge­ly water-satu­ra­ted slo­pes near are­as with living houses and infra­st­ruc­tures. Several roads were clo­sed and a num­ber of houses were evacua­ted Mon­day after­noon.

The­re have been several minor lands­li­des, but no dama­ge except from com­pa­ra­tively minor dama­ge to a dog yard near Lon­gye­ar­by­en. The dogs in kennels at risk had been moved to other kennels befo­re, all ani­mals are well and safe.

On the coast bet­ween the cam­ping site and Bjørn­da­len, coas­tal ero­si­on is incre­a­sing due to high water and surf on unf­ro­zen ground. Several cabins and parts of the roads are at risk and likely to get lost on the long term.

The admi­nis­tra­ti­on, howe­ver, has deci­ded to keep evacua­tions upright until fur­ther noti­ce. Slo­pe pro­ces­ses take their time, and the­re is still a risk of lands­li­des. Peop­le are asked to stay away from steep ter­rain.

Closed and evacuated parts of Longyearbyen due to extreme weather

The mar­ked parts of Lon­gye­ar­by­en are cur­r­ent­ly (Novem­ber 7) clo­sed due to the extre­me wea­ther. Map © Sys­sel­man­nen på Sval­bard.

Source: Sys­sel­man­nen

Extre­me wea­ther in Spits­ber­gen: Lon­gye­ar­by­en part­ly evacua­ted

Octo­ber had alrea­dy been qui­te extre­me in Spits­ber­gen, with unusual­ly warm tem­pe­ra­tures and a lot of rain. The­re were mud­flows from Pla­tå­berg across the road bet­ween the church and Huset, the road was tem­pora­ri­ly clo­sed.

Now it is get­ting worse: up to 50 mm pre­ci­pi­ta­ti­on or even more are expec­ted during the night from Mon­day (Novem­ber 7) to Tues­day. Below 500 m alti­tu­de the pre­ci­pi­ta­ti­on is expec­ted to fall as rain. Several roads in and near Lon­gye­ar­by­en are clo­sed and houses in several roads are evacua­ted becau­se of the risk of avalan­ches.

The Sys­sel­man­nen has issued several warnings. Amongst others, peop­le are reques­ted to stay away from steep ter­rain and from old buil­dings such as mines and parts of the old coal cable­car, which may col­lap­se in extre­me winds.

The dan­ger of snow avalan­ches in hig­her ter­rain is high (sta­ge 4).

The wea­ther is expec­ted to calm down Tues­day morning. Fin­gers cros­sed all goes well until then.

P.S. Per­so­nal remark for friends of the aut­hor: our home in Lon­gye­ar­by­en is not in the con­cer­ned area.

Closed and evacuated parts of Longyearbyen due to extreme weather

The mar­ked parts of Lon­gye­ar­by­en are cur­r­ent­ly (Novem­ber 7) clo­sed due to the extre­me wea­ther. Map © Sys­sel­man­nen på Sval­bard.

Source: Sys­sel­man­nen

North pole expe­di­ti­on of French Ark­ti­ka ter­mi­na­ted in Duve­fjord

A French north pole expe­di­ti­on was ter­mi­na­ted by the Sys­sel­man­nen in Duve­fjord on Nord­aus­t­land. The adven­tu­rers Gil­les and Ale­xia Elkaim had plan­ned a voya­ge simi­lar to that of Fri­dt­jof Nan­sen and his ship Fram in 1893-96 with their sai­ling boat Ark­ti­ka. Their plan was to sail into the Nor­the­ast Pas­sa­ge and to let the boat free­ze in the ice near the New Sibe­ri­an Islands to then drift with the ice across the Arc­tic Oce­an. A sledge jour­ney to the pole its­elf was part of the plan of the expe­di­ti­on, which was sche­du­led to last for several years.

Now the expe­di­ti­on has come to a pre­ma­tu­re end in Spits­ber­gen. Bad wea­ther, ice and engi­ne pro­blems had for­ced the Ark­ti­ka to return to Nord­aus­t­land, after they had left alrea­dy Kvi­tøya, hea­ding fur­ther east. The ship was brought into Duve­fjord on the north coast of Nord­aus­t­land to seek shel­ter from the wea­ther. Accord­ing to the expedition’s own blog, the situa­ti­on was dif­fi­cult at times due to the wea­ther. Due to the late sea­son and the need for fur­ther repairs, it was then deci­ded to win­ter in Duve­fjord.

Per­mis­si­on for a win­te­ring had, howe­ver, not been obtai­ned and such per­mis­si­ons are not issued on a short warning. Cap­tain Elkaim app­lied for per­mis­si­on from the Sys­sel­man­nen on Octo­ber 08. The result was a heli­co­p­ter visit with offi­cials who con­fis­ca­ted crew pass­ports and papers. During the fol­lowing days the Ark­ti­ka was towed to Lon­gye­ar­by­en. Aut­ho­ri­ties sta­te tech­ni­cal and legal rea­sons for this. The expe­di­ti­on mem­bers, howe­ver, wri­te on their Face­book site that the situa­ti­on in Duve­fjord had been under con­trol, that the­re was no neces­si­ty for being towed and that the strong winds made this ope­ra­ti­on actual­ly rather dan­ge­rous. On the other hand, they thank the crew on Polar­sys­sel for their friend­ly and pro­fes­sio­nal hand­ling of the situa­ti­on. At the same time, Nor­we­gi­an aut­ho­ri­ties are accu­sed, amongst others for cru­el­ty to ani­mals becau­se the 7 expe­di­ti­on dogs have not been allo­wed on shore in Lon­gye­ar­by­en for 10 days, alt­hough the local vet has repor­ted good health and vac­ci­na­ti­ons as nee­ded. The expe­di­ti­on claims to have app­lied for per­mis­si­on to take dogs to Sval­bard alrea­dy in July without get­ting a reply from the aut­ho­ri­ties.

The legal situa­ti­on and fol­low-up may keep lawy­ers on both sides busy for a while. Mean­while, the expe­di­ti­on has come to an ear­ly and unin­ten­ded end, be it preli­mi­na­ry or final.

The French boat Ark­ti­ka does not have anything to do with the boats Arc­ti­ca I and Arc­ti­ca II from Lon­gye­ar­by­en.

The French expe­di­ti­on boat Ark­ti­ka in Advent­fjord, after towing by Polar­sys­sel. Image © Bjørn Fran­zen.

Arktika in Adventfjord

Sources: Web­sei­te and Face­book­sei­te of the Ark­ti­ka-Expe­di­ti­on, The Inde­pen­dent Bar­ents Obser­ver.

Ano­t­her tem­pe­ra­tu­re record in Spits­ber­gen

Tem­pe­ra­tu­re record from the wea­ther any­whe­re in the world, espe­cial­ly from the arc­tic, are get­ting more and more com­mon the­se days. On Fri­day (Octo­ber 07), the wea­ther sta­ti­on at the air­port near Lon­gye­ar­by­en recor­ded 10.1 degrees (C). This was the first time a value hig­her than 10 degrees was reached in any Octo­ber sin­ce tem­pe­ra­tu­re record­ing star­ted. The hig­hest Octo­ber tem­pe­ra­tu­re so far had been 8.9 degrees, mea­su­red in 1984. In 1961, 9.9 degrees were recor­ded. Back then, the wea­ther sta­ti­on was in Lon­gye­ar­by­en its­elf and not near the air­port (which did not exist back then) and dif­fe­rent mea­su­ring devices were used. The values can, accord­in­gly, not be com­pa­red direct­ly. Espe­cial­ly the dif­fe­rent loca­ti­on, though only a few kilo­me­tres apart, may make a signi­fi­cant dif­fe­rent. The loca­ti­ons, near the shore of the lar­ge, open Isfjord or in Lon­gye­ar­by­en which is situa­ted in a val­ley, are meteo­ro­lo­gi­cal­ly qui­te dif­fe­rent.

Very impres­si­ve is ano­t­her bit of infor­ma­ti­on, which is easi­ly get­ting over­loo­ked and lost in a sub-clau­se: the cur­r­ent­ly last time that a mon­th was col­der than the mon­th­ly long-term average was in Novem­ber 2010, sad 6 years ago.

The ice situa­ti­on around Spits­ber­gen is cur­r­ent­ly also rather sad. It has been sug­gested that last year’s poor sea ice con­di­ti­ons were lin­ked to the El Nino phe­no­me­non, which was strong then in the south Paci­fic, with glo­bal con­se­quen­ces for wea­ther and sea cur­r­ents. The­re has, so far, not been any impro­ve­ment regar­ding the sea ice near Spits­ber­gen.

Octo­ber brings the polar night to Lon­gye­ar­by­en. That does usual­ly not invol­ve tem­pe­ra­tures around 10 degrees abo­ve free­zing.

Temperature record in Longyearbyen

Source: Nord­lys

New book: Ice Bear. The Cul­tu­ral Histo­ry of an Arc­tic Icon by Micha­el Engel­hard

Micha­el Engelhard’s new book Ice Bear. The Cul­tu­ral Histo­ry of an Arc­tic Icon is about to be released in Novem­ber. It throws light on the king of the arc­tic seen from a cul­tu­ral histo­ry per­spec­ti­ve and surely deser­ves to be announ­ced here with this descrip­ti­on with is writ­ten and com­pi­led by its aut­hor.

Ice Bear
The Cul­tu­ral Histo­ry of an Arc­tic Icon

By MICHA­EL ENGEL­HARD

NATU­RAL HISTO­RY
288 pp., 170 illus., 145 in color, 8 x 10 in. $29.95 paper­back, Novem­ber 2016

Prime Arc­tic pre­d­a­tor and nomad of the sea ice and tun­dra, the polar bear endu­res as a source of won­der, ter­ror, and fasci­na­ti­on. Humans have seen it
as spi­rit gui­de and fan­ged enemy, as tra­de good and moral meta­phor, as food source and sym­bol of eco­lo­gi­cal cri­sis. Eight thousand years of arti­facts attest to its cha­ris­ma, and to the frau­ght rela­ti­ons­hips bet­ween our two spe­ci­es. In the White Bear, we ack­now­ledge the magic of wild­ness: it is both genui­nely its­elf and a screen for our ima­gi­na­ti­on.

Ice Bear traces and illu­mi­na­tes this intert­wi­ned histo­ry. From Inu­it shamans to Jean Har­low loun­ging on a bears­kin rug, from the cubs trai­ned to pull sleds toward the North Pole to cuddly super­star Knut, it all comes to life in the­se pages. With meti­cu­lous rese­arch and more than 160 illus­tra­ti­ons, the aut­hor brings into focus this power­ful and elu­si­ve ani­mal. Doing so, he del­ves into the sto­ries we tell about Nature—and about ourselves—hoping for a future in which such tales still mat­ter.

MICHA­EL ENGEL­HARD works as a wil­der­ness gui­de in Arc­tic Alas­ka and holds an MA in cul­tu­ral anthro­po­lo­gy from the Uni­ver­si­ty of Alas­ka Fair­banks. His books inclu­de a recent essay collec­tion, Ame­ri­can Wild: Explo­ra­ti­ons from the Grand Can­yon to the Arc­tic Oce­an. His wri­ting has also appeared in Sier­ra, Out­side, Audu­bon, Natio­nal Wild­life, Natio­nal Parks, High Coun­try News, and the San Fran­cis­co Chro­ni­cle.

“Engelhard’s thought-pro­vo­king ico­no­gra­phy explo­res in depth the mul­ti­tu­de of cul­tu­ral roles play­ed by the polar bear.”
David Fox, Ancho­ra­ge Press

“Engel­hard wea­ves tog­e­ther the dis­pa­ra­te pie­ces of our eclec­tic social and cul­tu­ral fasci­na­ti­on with polar bears. A tapes­try of images reve­als our com­plex attach­ment to this Arc­tic icon.”
Andrew Dero­cher, aut­hor of Polar Bears: A Com­ple­te Gui­de to their Bio­lo­gy and Beha­vi­or

Ice Bear. The Cul­tu­ral Histo­ry of an Arc­tic Icon by Micha­el Engel­hard.

Cover image: Ice Bear. The Cultural History of an Arctic Icon by Michael Engelhard

Source: Micha­el Engel­hard

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